Appendix II: On the Copyrights, Intellectual Property Rights, and Human Rights

1. Ethical issues:
Ethical issues concerning the copyrights and intellectual property rights form the basis for the ethical framework for dissemination of research results. Below, there is a link which represents the traditional approach to the problem by focusing the problems with respect to anthropology, and another link to the website which deals with the ethical issues within the framework of artificial intelligence: Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology, Ethical Issues in Advanced Artificial Intelligence (Nick Bostrom) (cf. also the the Declaration of the Human Rights; on the most recent initiatives on the intellectural property rights in the framework of the EU: Immaterial rights: Key Issues Paper of the German Council Precidency, and EurActive).

2. Copyrights:
Copyrights define the rights of the authors and the publishers of published documents. The copyrights were originally defined with copyright laws of different countries. Later, these rights have been specified with several international contracts, e.g. with the contract signed in Bern in 1986. This contract was followed by the so-called Paris Document and Rome Document. These contracts were ratified by several countries and also by the World Trade Organization (1995) (WTO). The copyright law was reformed by the European Parliament and the Council in 2001, 2005, and 2006 (copyright in 2006).

On the copyright laws of Finland:
The copyright law in Finland is based on the law given in 1961, and later, some parts of the law were specified and changed (Ministry of Education in Finland: Copyright law, Finland (Tekijänoikeuslaki . The last changes were done in 2005 (edited and summarized by Jukka Korpela) and in 2006.

On the international co-operation within the framework of the European Council:
(a) International co-operation
(b) Directive 2001/29/EC
(c) Directive 2001/84/EC.

3.Creative Commons:
Creative Commons is a non-profit organization organized by people working on Open Access Publishing. The group has developed licenses according to which the copyrights are divided with respect to the area the copyrights concern: commercial/non-commercial use of works, the possibilities to use the "product as a basis of new developments", etc. The copyright contracts are defined with licenses which contain several alternations with respect to the scope of the licences. The Creative Commons is an international initiative, and it works in several countries. The copyright rules and licenses are translated into several languages: in the Nordic Baltic area into Finnish, Swedish, and Danish.

Creative Commons principles on copyrights: "Creative Commons offers a flexible range of protections and freedoms for authors and artists. We have built upon the "all rights reserved" of traditional copyright to create a voluntary "some rights reserved" copyright. We're a nonprofit. All of our tools are free."

Creative Commons Licenses: examples of combinations of alternations:
(a) Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd): "You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor", "You may not use this work for commercial purposes.", and "You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work".
(b) Non-commercial Share Alike (by-nc-sa): "You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor", "You may not use this work for commercial purposes", and "If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one". (c) Non-commercial (by-nc): "You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor", and "You may not use this work for commercial purposes".
(d) No Derivatives (by-nd); "You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor",, and "You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work."
(e) Share Alike (by-sa): "You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor", and "If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one".
(f) (by): "You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor",



P.S., 2006.