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MonAKO Glossary T

Alkuun A-B C D E-F G-H I J-L M N-P Q-R S T U-W

target language, TL
Definition: language translated into
FI: tulokieli, kohdekieli
SV: mlsprk
DE: Zielsprache
FR: langue darrive, langue cible

target language enrichment
Definition: way that translations enrich the target language by introducing new terms, forms or genres etc.
FI: kohdekielen rikastaminen
SV: berikande av mlsprket
DE: Bereicherung der Zielsprache
FR: enrichissement de la langue cible

target text, TT
Definition: the translation itself, in the target language
FI: kohdeteksti, tuloteksti
SV: mltext, sluttext
DE: Zieltext
FR: texte darrive, texte cible

technique, translation technique
Definition: a specific textual procedure for translating a particular structure or item. Examples of techniques are transposition, calque, explicitation, condensation, omission.
Note: some scholars use the term strategy or local strategy or procedure or shift in this sense.
FI: knnstekniikka
SV: versttningsteknik
DE: bersetzungsverfahren
FR: technique, procd

term bank
Definition: computer-based collection of terminology
FI: termipankki
SV: termbank
DE: Termenbank, Terminilogiedatenbank
FR: banque de terminologie

Definition 1: specialized vocabulary, ideally with one-to-one equivalents in other languages, usually associated with a particular restricted domain
Definition 2: science which researches the concepts, systems of concepts, terms and terminologies in one or more languages
FI: (1) termist, (2) terminologia
SV: (1) terminologi, (2) terminologi, terminologilra
DE: Terminologie
FR: terminologie

tertium comparationis
Definition: literally, the third term of a comparison; that which remains invariant in translation or in contrastive analysis, which forms the basis for the comparison
FI: tertium comparationis
SV: tertium comparationis
DE: Tertium Comparationis
FR: tertium comparationis

textual equivalence
Definition: relation that is observed to exist between an element of a source text and a corresponding element in its translation, as accepted by a competent bilingual
Source: Catford 1965
FI: tekstiekvivalenssi
SV: textuell ekvivalens
DE: textuelle quivalenz
FR: quivalence textuelle

theory of sense > interpretive theory

thick translation > ethnographic translation

think-aloud protocol, TAP
Definition: research method in which translators are asked to speak aloud as they translate; they are recorded as they verbalize their thoughts about what they are doing
Source: Krings 1986
FI: protokollatutkimus
SV: tala-hgtprotokoll, tnka-hgt-protokoll, TAP-protokoll
DE: Verfahren des Lauten Denkens
FR: protocoles de rflexion haute voix, protocole de rflexion parle, protocole de verbalisation

Definition: kind of transfer or borrowing that preserves the sounds or letters or words of the original; sometimes used e.g. in translating place names or realia
FI: transkriptio
SV: transkription
DE: Transkription
FR: transcription

Definition: pragmatic translation strategy which involves radical editing, in order to make the target text clearer or communicatively more efficient than a poor-quality source text; and/or to adapt the translation to its intended function; and/or to adapt it to the target culture
Source: Stetting 1989
FI: transeditointi
SV: transeditering, transredigering
DE: Transredaktion
FR: transdition

Definition: basic translational unit used in the analysis of a translation; a basic semantic structure expressing a state of affairs (a proposition) or some kind of adverbial
Source: Leuven-Zwart 1989/1990
FI: transeemi
SV: transem
DE: Transeme
FR: transme

Definition 1: second stage in Nida and Tabers model, after analysis and before restructuring; the stage at which the message passes from source to target.
Definition 2: general sense of change or movement, usually across a border; in this sense, translation itself is seen as just one kind of transfer
FI: siirto
SV: (1) verfringsskede, (1, 2) verfring
DE: Transfer
FR: transfert

Definition: possibility of translating, or of being translated
FI: knnettvyys
SV: versttbarhet
DE: bersetzbarkeit
FR: traduisibilit

Definition: to turn into ones own or another language
FI: knt
SV: verstta
DE: bersetzen
FR: traduire

Definition: text in one language that represents a text in another language (in some way, for some purpose); process of producing a translation
Note: in German, die Translation is often used as a cover-term to include both written and oral translation.
FI: knns, kntminen
SV: versttning
DE: bersetzung
FR: traduction

translation aids
Definition: any tool that helps the translator, including dictionaries, reference works, term banks and computer programs of all kinds
Source: Delisle 1999
FI: kntjn apuvlineet, kntmisen apuvlineet
SV: hjlpmedel i versttningsarbetet
DE: bersetzungshilfe
FR: aides la traduction

translation commentary
Definition: a translators commentary explaining and justifying translatorial decisions, usually accompanied by the translation itself
FI: kntjn kommentaareilla varustettu knns, knnskommentaari
SV: kommenterad versttning
DE: kommentierte bersetzung
FR: traduction commente

translation criticism > translation assessment

translation equivalent
Definition: expression in a target language which can translate a source-language expression in certain contexts
FI: knnsvastine
SV: versttningsekvivalent
DE: bersetzungsquivalent
FR: quivalent traductionnel

translation law
Definition: general hypothesis about a possible universal tendency in translatorial behaviour, such as interference or increasing standardization
Source: Toury 1995
FI: knnslaki, kntmisen laki
SV: versttningslag
DE: bersetzungsgesetz
FR: loi de traduction

translation memory
Definition: a computer program containing files of previous translations which can be automatically accessed in order to speed up a translation task, and/or ensure consistency with previous translations
FI: knnsmuisti
SV: versttningsminne
DE: besetzungsspeicher
FR: mmoire de traduction

Definition: having to do with translation or translations
FI: knns-, kntmisen
SV: translatorisk
DE: bersetzungs-
FR: traductionnel

Definition: style typical of translations that are not natural or fluent enough; typical stylistic weaknesses of translated texts
FI: knnskieli
SV: versttarsprk, versttningssprk
DE: bersetzersprache
FR: langue de la traduction

translation studies
Definition: the whole field of research on translation
Source: Holmes 1988
FI: knnstiede, kntmisen tutkimus
SV: versttningsvetenskap, traductologi
DE: Translationswissenschaft (includes also interpreting), bersetzungswissenschaft
FR: traductologie

translation theory
Definition: either a synonym for Translation Studies, or used to denote the more theoretical aspects of translation research
FI: kntmisen teoria, knnsteoria
SV: versttningsteori
DE: bersetzungstheorie
FR: thorie de la traduction

translation unit, unit of translation
Definition: segment of text dealt with by the translator as a single unit,
for the purposes of translation
FI: knnsyksikk
SV: versttningsenhet
DE: bersetzungseinheit
FR: unit de traduction

translation universals
Definition: features of translations that may be universal (or at least very general), regardless of the languages concerned, such as a tendency to be more explicit
Source: Baker 1993
FI: knnsuniversaalit, kntmisen universaalit
SV: versttandets universaler, versttningsuniversaler
DE: Universalien der bersetzung
FR: universaux de la traduction

translator visibility
Definition: (indications of) the textual or social presence of the translator
Source: Venuti 1995
FI: kntjn nkyvyys
SV: versttarens synlighet
DE: Sichtbarkeit des bersetzers
FR: visibilit du traducteur

Definition: having to do with translators
FI: kntj-, kntjn
SV: versttar-, translatorisk
DE: bersetzer-, bersetzerisch-
FR: traductif

translatorial action
Definition: whole process of producing a translation, with all the agents involved
Source: Holz-Mnttri 1984
SV: versttningsverksamhet, translatorisk verksamhet
FI: kntjn toiminta
DE: translatorisches Handeln
FR: acte traductionnel, action traductionnelle

translatorial competence
Definition: abilities required of a professional translator
FI: kntjn kompetenssi
SV: versttarkompetens
DE: bersetzungsfertigkeit, bersetzungskompetenz, translatorische Kompetenz
FR: comptence du traducteur

Definition: replacing of source-language graphological units by target-language ones, in cases where the two language have different writing systems
Source: Catford 1965
FI: translitteraatio
SV: translitteration
DE: Transliteration
FR: translittration

transmutation > intersemiotic translation

Definition: syntactic translation technique or strategy involving a change of word-class (e.g. from noun to verb)
Source: Vinay and Darbelnet 1958
FI: transpositio
SV: transposition
DE: Transposition
FR: transposition

trope change
Definition: semantic translation technique or strategy: change in the use of figurative expressions such as metaphor, personification etc.
Source: Chesterman 1997
FI: kielikuvan muutos
SV: frndrad trop
DE: Tropenwechsel
FR: changement tropique

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