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MonAKO Glossary N-P

Alkuun A-B C D E-F G-H I J-L M N-P Q-R S T U-W

naturalizing strategy > domestication

Definition 1: having to do with norms, i.e. with shared ideas about what should be done or what something should be like. (This is the usual interpretation of the term in Descriptive Translation Studies.)
Definition 2: having to do with what is typical
FI: normatiivinen
SV: normativ
DE: normativ
FR: normatif

observational receiver
Definition: reader who can understand a message although it is not specifically addressed to him/her
Source: Pym 1992
FI: havainnoiva vastaanottaja
SV: observerande mottagare
DE: beobachtender Empfnger
FR: recepteur observateur

Definition: translation technique or strategy in which the translator decides to leave out information that is present in the source text; can be seen as a translation error if the translator doesnt have an acceptable reason for the omission
FI: poisto, poisjtt
SV: frlust, utelmning
DE: Auslassung
FR: omission

operational norm
Definition: norm which affects the text-producing process in translation
Source: Toury 1995
FI: toimintanormi
SV: operationell norm
DE: operationale Norm
FR: norme oprationnelle

operative text
Definition: text whose primary function is to affect the behaviour of the receiver, such as persuasive texts, instructions (compare expressive and informative text)
Source: Reiss 1976
FI: operatiivinen teksti
SV: operativ text
DE: operativer Text
FR: texte incitatif

Definition: quality of being different from oneself; the essential being different of the source text and/or culture, as experienced by the target-language reader, or initially by the translator
FI: toiseus
SV: alteritet
DE: Andersartigkeit, Fremdartigkeit, Alteritt, Anderssein
FR: altrit

other tongue translation > inverse translation

Definition: a characteristic of translations that increase the level of detail, as compared with that of the original, e.g. because the unit of translation is smaller than it might have been; often involves more words than the original
Source: Newmark 1988
FI: ylikntminen
SV: ver-versttning
DE: berdifferenzierung
FR: surtraduction

overt translation
Definition: translation which is intended to be recognized as a translation, e.g. because it is clearly bound to the source culture; it may have a different function from that of the original (compare covert translation)
Source: House 1981
FI: avoin knns, ilmiknns
SV: ppen versttning
DE: funktionsverndernde bersetzung
FR: traduction non dguise

parallel text
Definition 1: non-translated texts in the target language that are maximally similar in subject matter, text-type, function and genre to the target text; used as stylistic models by translators who wish to make their translations sound as natural as possible; and used by scholars studying differences between translations and non-translated texts
Definition 2: translations themselves, seen as being parallel to their source texts
FI: rinnakkaisteksti
SV: parallell text
DE: Paralleltext
FR: texte parallle

parallel translation
Definition: translation of a single source text into several target languages, usually simultaneously
FI: rinnakkaisknns
SV: parallelversttning
DE: Parallelbersetzung
FR: traduction parallle

Definition: translation strategy which is a middle way between metaphrase and imitation, not too close and not too free; more generally, a translation that can be described as loose, free, sometimes even undertranslated
Source: Dryden 1690
FI: parafraasi, parafrastinen knns
SV: parafras
DE: Paraphrase
FR: paraphrase

Definition: those parts of a publication that come before or after or around the text proper, such as title, frontispiece, name of author and/or translator, preface, afterword, cover blurb, notes
Source: Genette 1987
FI: parateksti
SV: paratext
DE: Paratext
FR: paratexte

partial translation
Definition: any kind of non-integral translation, such as summary translation, transcription, translation of the sounds only
Source: Catford 1965
FI: osittainen knns, osittaisknns
SV: partiell versttning
DE: partielle bersetzung
FR: traduction partielle

participative receiver
Definition: receiver who is specifically addressed by a particular text; an intended reader
Source: Pym 1992
FI: osallistuva vastaanottaja
SV: deltagande mottagare
DE: intendierter Empfnger
FR: recepteur participant

Definition: people and institutions that exert power and control (economic, ideological, political...) over a cultures literary system and hence over a translators decisions, such as clients, publishers, political or religious or literary institutions, academia, the media
Source: Lefevere 1992
FI: suojelijat
SV: beskyddarskap, patronat
DE: Gnnerschaft
FR: patronage

phonemic translation, phonological translation, homophonic translation
Definition: kind of translation that seeks to preserve the same sounds and rhythm as the original, usually regardless of syntax or meaning; used in some translations of poetry
FI: foneeminen knns, homofoninen knns
SV: fonemisk versttning, homofon versttning
DE: homophone bersetzung
FR: traduction homophonique, traduction phonmique

phonological translation > phonemic translation

phrase structure change
Definition: syntactic translation technique or strategy involving a change at the level of the phrase, such as changes in number, definiteness and modification in the noun phrase, and person, tense, and mood in the verb phrase
FI: lausekerakenteen muutos
SV: meningsstrukturfrndring, frndrad frasstruktur
DE: Phrasenstrukturwechsel
FR: changement syntagmatique

pivot language, interlingua
Definition: language that serves as an intermediary in indirect translation, i.e. when a translation is not done directly from the original
FI: vlikieli, pivot-kieli
SV: mellansprk, pivotsprk
DE: Interlingua
FR: langue pivot

polemical translation
Definition: kind of translation that is overtly directed against some other translation or kind of translation, or against the source-text author
Source: Popovic 1976
FI: poleeminen knns
SV: polemisk versttning
DE: polemische bersetzung
FR: traduction polmique

polysystem theory
Definition: theory of the structure and behaviour of literary systems, which sees a cultures literature as consisting of a set of systems (i.e. a polysystem) of different kinds, some central, others peripheral; literary translations thus form a system within this polysystem
Source: Even-Zohar 1990
FI: polysysteemiteoria
SV: polysystemteori
DE: Polysystemtheorie
FR: thorie des polysystmes

Definition: human revision of translations done by a computer
FI: jlkieditointi
SV: post-editering, efterredigering
DE: Postredaktion
FR: post-dition

pragmatic equivalence > dynamic equivalence

pragmatic strategy (or technique)
Definition: change concerning pragmatic aspects of a translation, involving some adjustment of the message for the target audience
Source: Chesterman 1997
FI: pragmaattinen knnsstrategia
SV: pragmatisk versttningsstrategi
DE: pragmatische bersetzungsstrategie
FR: stratgie pragmatique

Definition: preparation of a source text for machine translation, e.g. by simplifying it, removing ambiguities and idioms, clarifying pronouns etc.
FI: etukteiseditointi
SV: pre-editering, frredigering, frhandsredigering
DE: Prredaktion
FR: pr-dition

preliminary norm
Definition: norm which affects the translation process before the translator starts; these norms have to do with the translation policy concerning what is worth translating; and with the attitude towards indirect translation
Source: Toury 1995
FI: ennakkonormi
SV: preliminr norm
DE: Prliminarnorm
FR: norme prliminaire

prescriptive translation studies
Definition: translation research that aims to state what should be done, rather than describe or explain what is in fact done
FI: preskriptiivinen knnstutkimus, ohjaileva knnstutkimus
SV: preskriptiv versttningsteori
DE: prskriptive bersetzungsforschung
FR: traductologie prescriptive

procedure, translation procedure
Definition: an alternative term for a technique or strategy; either generally or with reference to a specific language pair
Source Delisle 1999, Vinay and Darbelnet 1958
FI: knnsmenetelm, kntmismenetelm
SV: versttningsmetod, versttningsprocedur
DE: bersetzungsverfahren, bersetzungsstrategie
FR: procd de traduction

professional norm
Definition: process norms that govern professional translation practice: norms of communication, source-target relations, and accountability
Source: Chesterman 1997
FI: ammatillinen normi
SV: professionell norm
DE: professionelle Norm
FR: norme professionnelle

protocol > think-aloud protocol

Definition: text that is claimed to be, and is initially accepted as, a translation, but later turns out not to be one after all, because it has had no source text
FI: nennisknns, pseudoknns, valeknns
SV: pseudoversttning
DE: Pseudobersetzung
FR: pseudo-traduction

pure language
Definition: mythical, Romantic notion of an abstract universal language underlying all actual languages, which can be tapped by translations that are allowed to be affected and thus enriched by the source language
Source: Benjamin 1923/1963
FI: puhdas kieli
SV: rena sprket
DE: reine Sprache
FR: langue pure

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