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MonAKO Glossary M

Alkuun A-B C D E-F G-H I J-L M N-P Q-R S T U-W

machine translation
Definition: translation done by a computer program
FI: konekntminen
SV: maskinversttning
DE: maschinelle bersetzung
FR: traduction automatique

machine-aided translation > computer-assisted translation

Definition: adjusting the source message in order to make it more compatible with a given ideology. (According to the group of scholars known as the Manipulation School, all translation implies some degree of manipulation of the source text for a certain purpose.)
Source: Hermans 1985
FI: manipulointi
SV: manipulation
DE: Manipulation
FR: manipulation

Manipulation School
Definition: group of scholars, mainly in Belgium, the Netherlands and Israel, who brought new ideas into translation studies in the 1980s and 90s, with an emphasis on descriptive studies of literary translations and their cultural contexts
Source: Hermans 1985
FI: manipulaatiokoulukunta
SV: manipulationsteoretiker
DE: Manipulationstheoretiker
FR: cole de manipulation

Definition: the process whereby translations map i.e. represent originals; also the mental picture that the translator forms of the source text before and while translating
FI: kuvaus
SV: kartlggning
DE: Abbildung
FR: reprsentation

matricial norm
Definition: a norm that regulates the organization of the target text during translation, e.g. regarding what can be moved or omitted
Source: Toury 1995
FI: matriisinormi
SV: matrisnorm
DE: Matriznorm
FR: norme matricielle

mediated translation > indirect translation

Definition: unit of cultural transfer; an idea, behaviour, style, or usage that spreads from person to person
Source: Dawkins 1976
FI: meemi
SV: mem
DE: Meme
FR: mme

Definition: fairly literal (and grammatical) translation
Source: Dryden 1690
FI: metafraasi
SV: metafras
DE: Metaphrase
FR: mtaphrase

minimax principle
Definition: game-theory principle governing the translators decision-making process, according to which the best choices are those which produce the maximum effect with the least effort
Source: Levy 1967
FI: minimaksperiaate
SV: minimaxprincip
DE: Minimaxstrategie
FR: principe minimax

Definition 1: kind of shift in which both source-text and target-text items are hyponyms of the same cover-term or architranseme, but are slightly different semantically or syntactically.
Source: Leuven-Zwart 1989/90
Definition 2: any kind of slight change or shift (a more general usage than definition 1)
FI: modifikaatio
SV: modifikation
DE: Modifikation
FR: modification

Definition 1: technique involving a slight change of meaning or point of view
Source Vinay and Darbelnet 1958
Definition 2: technique involving generalization or specification
Source: Leuven-Zwart 1989/1990
FI: modulaatio
SV: modulation
DE: Modulation
FR: modulation

mother tongue translation (MTT)
Definition: translation done into the translators native language
FI: knns / kntminen idinkieleen
SV: versttning till modersmlet
DE: bersetzen in die Muttersprache
FR: version

multilingual corpus
Definition: set of monolingual corpora in two or more languages, based on similar design criteria, so that e.g. typical usages in different languages can be compared
FI: monikielinen korpus
SV: flersprkig korpus
DE: multilinguales Korpus
FR: corpus multilingue

multi-medial text
Definition: text involving more than one medium, such as words plus pictures and/or sound
FI: multimediateksti
SV: multimediatext
DE: multimediale Text
FR: texte multimdiatique

multimedia translation > screen translation

Definition: translational shift which produces a big difference between source and target,such as an addition or omission or radical change of meaning
Source: Leuven-Zwart 1989/90
FI: mutaatio
SV: mutation
DE: Mutation
FR: mutation

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