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MonAKO Glossary I

Alkuun A-B C D E-F G-H I J-L M N-P Q-R S T U-W

illocutionary change
Definition: pragmatic translation technique or strategy: changes of speech act, e.g. involving a change of the mood of the verb from indicative to imperative, changes in the use of rhetorical questions and exclamations, changes between direct and indirect speech
Source: Chesterman 1997
FI: illokutionaarinen muutos, illokutorinen vaihto
SV: illokutionbyte, frndrad illokution
DE: Illokutionswechsel
FR: changement illocutoire

Definition: very free kind of translation, in which the priority is to imitate an authors style rather than preserve the structure or meaning of the original
Source: Dryden 1690
FI: imitaatio, jljittely
SV: imitation
DE: Imitation
FR: traduction mimtique, imitation

Definition: translation technique or strategy of producing a target text that allows the reader to infer information that was expressed more explicitly in the source text
FI: implisiittistminen
SV: implicitering
DE: Verknappung
FR: implicitation

Definition: the unavoidable ambiguity and indefiniteness of meaning which occurs in all communication; a philosophical term
Source: Quine 1960
FI: epmrisyys
SV: indetermination
DE: Unbestimmtheit
FR: indtermination

indirect translation, mediated translation
Definition: translation done via an intermediary translation in a third language, not directly from the original
Source: Vinay and Darbelnet 1958
FI: epsuora knns, vlillinen knns
SV: indirekt versttning
DE: indirekte bersetzung
FR: traduction indirecte

information change
Definition: pragmatic translation technique or strategy involving either the addition of new (non-inferrable) information which is thought to be relevant to the target readership but which is not present in the source text, or the omission of source-text information which is judged to be irrelevant (this latter might involve summarizing, for instance)
Source: Chesterman 1997
FI: informaatiomuutos
SV: informationsbyte, frndrad information
DE: Informationswechsel
FR: changement informationnel

information load, communication load
Definition: amount of information per unit of text; the higher the load, the more dense the text is and the harder the text is to understand
Source: Nida 1964
FI: informaatiokuorma, informaatiotiheys
SV: kommunikationsmngd, informationstthet, informationsmngd
DE: Informationsintensitt
FR: densit informationnelle

information offer
Definition: view of a text (or act of communication) as a way of offering information to a receiver, who is responsible for accepting and interpreting the offer; a translation is thus an information offer about a previous information offer
Source: Vermeer1982
FI: informaatiotarjous
SV: informationsanbud
DE: Informationsangebot
FR: offre dinformation

informative text
Definition: text whose primary function is to transmit information (compare expressive and operative text)
Source: Reiss 1976
FI: informatiivinen teksti
SV: informativ text
DE: informativer Text
FR: texte informationnel, texte informatif

initial norm
Definition: either of a translators two basic orientation options: either to follow the norms of the source text and culture or those of the target culture.
Source: Toury 1995
FI: alkunormi
SV: initial norm
DE: Initialnorm
FR: norme initiale

initiator > client

instrumental translation
Definition: method of translation whereby the target text is intended to function independently in the target culture, without being recognized as a translation; a translation of this type (compare documentary translation)
Source: Nord 1997
FI: instrumentaalinen knns
SV: instrumentell versttning
DE: instrumentale bersetzung
FR: traduction instrumentale

Definition: tendency for translations to be influenced by the form of the source text
FI: interferenssi
SV: interferens
DE: Interferenz
FR: interfrence

interlinear translation
Definition: kind of very literal translation in which the target-text words appear line by line above or below the source text, in the appropriate place, to be read together with the original as an aid to understanding
FI: interlineaarinen knns
SV: interliner versttning
DE: Interlinearversion
FR: traduction coordonne linairement

interlingua > pivot language

interlingual translation
Definition: translation as normally understood, between languages
FI: kieltenvlinen kntminen
SV: interlingval versttning
DE: interlinguale bersetzung
FR: traduction interlinguale

interpersonal change
Definition: pragmatic translation technique or strategy involving a change which affects the formality level, the degree of emotiveness and involvement
Source: Chesterman 1997
FI: interpersonaalinen vaihdos
SV: interpersonal frndring
DE: interpersonale Wechsel
FR: changement interpersonnel

Definition: (usually) oral translation of spoken text
FI: tulkkaus
SV: tolkning
DE: Dolmetschen
FR: interprtation

intersemiotic translation, transmutation
Definition: form of translation between different semiotic systems, such as between music and words or dance, image, cinema
Source: Jakobson 1959
FI: intersemioottinen kntminen, intersemioottinen knns
SV: intersemiotisk versttning
DE: intersemiotische bersetzung
FR: traduction intersmiotique

intertemporal translation
Definition: kind of translation where the original text dates from a much earlier period (or deals with an earlier period), so that the translator is also translating across a significant time gap
Source: Vladova 1993
FI: intertemporaalinen knns
SV: intertemporal versttning
DE: bersetzung zwischen historischen Zeiten, intertemporale bersetzung
FR: traduction intertemporelle

intralingual translation, rewording
Definition: form of translation or rephrasing that takes place within the same language, as when one says the same thing in other words
Source: Jakobson 1959
FI: kielensisinen knns, uudelleenmuotoilu
SV: intralingval versttning, omformulering
DE: intralinguale bersetzung, Umformulierung
FR: reformulation, traduction intralinguale

intra-system shift
Definition: technique or strategy involving a change within a particular grammatical system, such as source-text singular changing to target-text plural within the system of number
Source: Catford 1965
FI: systeeminsisinen vaihdos
SV: systeminternt byte
DE: System-interne nderung
FR: changement intrasystmique

Definition: approximate synonym for sameness; something that does not change during the translation process
FI: invarianssi
SV: invarians
DE: Invarianz
FR: invariance

inverse translation, other tongue translation (OTT)
Definition: translation from the translators native language
FI: knns / kntminen vieraaseen kieleen
SV: versttning till ett frmmande sprk, omvnd versttning
DE: Hinbersetzung, bersetzung in die Fremdsprache
FR: thme

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