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emphasis change
Definition: semantic translation technique involving a change of emphasis or thematic focus
FI: painotuksen muutos
SV: frndrad emfas
DE: Schwerpunktswechsel
FR: changement demphase

equivalence
Definition 1: relationship between source text and target text; often understood as a kind (or kinds) of identity or sameness, or as a kind of similarity
Definition 2: a translation technique or procedure based on replicating the source situation, not the words; used e.g. for translating idioms
Source: Vinay and Darbelnet 1958
FI: ekvivalenssi, vastaavuus
SV: ekvivalens
DE: quivalenz
FR: quivalence

equivalence hierarchy
Definition: hierarchy of types of equivalence, in an order of priority decided by the translator for each particular translation task
Source: Holmes 1988, Koller 1979/1992
FI: vastaavuuksien hierarkia
SV: ekvivalenshierarki
DE: quivalenzhierarchie
FR: hirarchie des quivalences

ethnographic translation, thick translation
Definition: kind of translation used e.g. in ethnography, with many explanations, glosses and notes
Source: Casagrande 1954, Appiah 1993
FI: etnografinen kntminen
SV: etnografisk versttning
DE: ethnographische bersetzung
FR: traduction ethnographique

excluded receiver
Definition: receiver who is unable to participate in a communication, e.g. because the language is unknown to them or too difficult
Source: Pym 1992
FI: syrjytetty vastaanottaja
SV: utesluten mottagare
DE: ausgeschlossener Empfnger
FR: rcepteur exclu

exegetic translation
Definition: translation that expands the original, adding additional information and explanations
Source: Hervey and Higgins 1992
FI: selittv knns
SV: frklarande versttning
DE: erklrende bersetzung
FR: traduction exgse

exoticism
Definition: feature of translations in which linguistic and cultural features of the source text have been taken over into the translation with little or no adaptation, so that the translation has an obvious foreign appearence; see foreignizing
FI: eksotismi
SV: exotism
DE: Exotismus
FR: exotisme

exoticizing > foreignization

expectancy norm
Definition: target-culture norm expressing expectations about what a translation of a given type should look like, as a textual product
Source: Chesterman 1997
FI: odotusnormi
SV: frvntningsnorm
DE: Erwartungsnorm
FR: norme dattente

explicitation
Definition: technique or strategy of expressing more clearly, in the translation, information that was only implied in the source text
Source: Blum-Kulka 1986
FI: selventminen, eksplisiittistminen
SV: explicitering
DE: Explizierung
FR: explicitation

explicitness change
Definition: pragmatic translation technique or strategy; change either toward more explicitness (explicitation) or towards more implicitness (implicitation).
FI: ekplisiittisyyden muutos
SV: explicitetsbyte, frndrad explicithet
DE: Explizititheitswechsel
FR: changement dexplicitation

expressive text
Definition: text whose main function is to express the thoughts and/or feelings of the author, such as aesthetic texts, literature (compare informative and operative text)
Source: Reiss 1976
FI: ekspressiivinen teksti
SV: expressiv text
DE: expressiver Text
FR: texte expressif, texte dominante expressive

expansion > amplification

faithfulness, fidelity
Definition: quality of translations that represent their originals in a fair and just way; understood both linguistically and ethically
FI: uskollisuus
SV: trogenhet, trohet
DE: Treue
FR: fidlit

false friends
Definition: words that look alike in source language and target language but have clearly different meanings
FI: petolliset ystvt
SV: falska vnner
DE: falsche Freunde
FR: faux amis

fidelity > faithfulness

foreignization, exoticizing
Definition: strategy or technique whereby the translator seeks to preserve the otherness of the source text, translating it in a non-fluent way (compare domestication)
Source: Venuti 1995
FI: vieraannuttava strategia
SV: exoticering, frfrmmande strategi
DE: verfremdende Strategie
FR: stratgie daltrisation, exotisation

formal equivalence
Definition: source-target relation which preserves the syntactic form of the source text (as opposed to the meaning or the function)
Source: Nida 1964
FI: muodollinen vastaavuus
SV: formell ekvivalens
DE: formale quivalenz
FR: quivalence formelle

free translation
Definition: any kind of translation which gives higher priority to functional equivalence or to the intended effect than to formal equivalence
FI: vapaa knns
SV: fri versttning
DE: freie bersetzung
FR: traduction libre

functional equivalence > dynamic equivalence

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