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dcalage > lag

Descriptive Translation Studies
Definition: studies that aim to describe translations and what translators do (as opposed to prescriptive translation studies or mere speculation)
Source: Holmes 1988
FI: deskriptiivinen knnstiede
SV: deskriptiv versttningsteori
DE: deskriptive bersetzungswissenschaft
FR: traductologie descriptive

deverbalization
Definition: assumed stage in the interpreting (and translation) process when the interpreter detaches the meaning of the incoming message from its form, before expressing this meaning in the target language; a central concept of the Paris ESIT school and its thorie du sens
Source: Seleskovitch and Lederer 1984
FI: deverbalisaatio, deverbalisointi
SV: deverbalisation
DE: Entsprachlichung
FR: dverbalisation

diagrammatic translation
Definition: translation in which the source content is transferred to the target language by means of a diagram rather than by text
Source: Gouadec 1990, Sager 1994
FI: diagramminen knns
SV: diagrammatisk versttning
DE: diagrammatische bersetzung
FR: traduction diagrammatique

didactic translation
Definition: translation taught for the purpose of learning a foreign language
FI: kouluknns
SV: didaktisk versttning
DE: pdagogisches bersetzen
FR: traduction didactique, traduction pdagogique

differentiation, degree of
Definition: amount of specification or detail (in translation). The necessary degree of differentiation, determined by the function of the translation, is reflected e.g. in the amount of implicit source-cultural background information that is made explicit in the translation.
Source: Hnig and Kussmaul 1982
FI: eriyttmisaste
SV: differentieringsgrad
DE: Differenzierungsgrad
FR: degr de diffrenciation

direct translation
Definition 1: translation done directly from the original, without an intermediary text
Source: Toury 1995
Definition 2: group of translation techniques or strategies that minimize formal and semantic changes
Source: Vinay and Darbelnet 1958
FI: suora knns, (1) vlitn knns
SV: direkt versttning
DE: (1) primre bersetzung, (2) wrtliche bersetzung
FR: traduction directe

discovery procedure
Definition: research procedure starting with a target text, then establishing its source text, studying the relations between the two, and finally discovering the translators notion of equivalence that has guided the translation process
Source: Toury 1995
FI: lytmismenetelm
SV: upptcktsprocedur
DE: Entdeckungsverfahren
FR: procd de dcouverte

distribution change
Definition: semantic translation technique involving a change in the distribution of the same semantic components over more items (expansion) or fewer items (compression)
FI: semanttisten komponenttien uudelleenjrjestely, jakaumanvaihto
SV: distibutionsbyte, frndrad distibution
DE: Konstituentenwechsel
FR: changement distributionnel

documentary translation
Definition: method of translation whereby the translation functions as a kind of report of the original communication, preserving various features of the source text; a translation of this type (compare instrumental translation)
Source: Nord 1997
FI: dokumentaarinen knns
SV: dokumentarisk versttning
DE: dokumentarische bersetzung
FR: traduction documentaire

domestication, naturalizing strategy, cultural filtering
Definition: pragmatic translation technique or strategy in which the translator gives priority to target-language fluency, minimizing the Otherness of the original and e.g. adapting culture-bound items (compare foreignization)
Source: Venuti 1995
FI: kotouttaminen, kulttuurinen suodatus
SV: hemtamningsstrategi, kulturell filtrering, domesticering, nrmande strategi
DE: einbrgende Strategie, kulturelle Adaptation, kulturelle Transposition
FR: stratgie de domestication, transposition culturelle, traduction acclimatation

double presentation
Definition: translation technique whereby the source-language form of an item appears in the target text alongside a target-language equivalent or explanation, for instance in brackets
Source: Pym 1992
FI: kaksoisedustus
SV: dubbel presentation
DE: Doppelprsentation
FR: double prsentation

dubbing
Definition: technique of replacing the original verbal sound-track of a film etc. with target-language voices, usually synchronized with the original lip movements as far as possible
FI: dubbaus
SV: dubbning
DE: Synchronisation
FR: doublage

dynamic equivalence, functional equivalence, pragmatic equivalence
Definition: equivalence of effect or function, rather than form
Source: Nida 1964, House 1977
FI: dynaaminen vastaavuus, funktionaalinen vastaavuus
SV: funktionell ekvivalens, dynamisk ekvivalens, pragmatisk ekvivalens
DE: dynamische quivalenz, pragmatische quivalenz, funktionale quivalenz
FR: quivalence fonctionnelle, quivalence pragmatique, quivalence dynamique

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