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Nykykielten laitos

PL 24 (Unioninkatu 40)

Puhelin +358 (09) 1911 (vaihde)
Faksi +358 (09) 191 28313

MonAKO Glossary C

Alkuun A-B C D E-F G-H I J-L M N-P Q-R S T U-W

Definition: an interpreters passive foreign language, used in conference interpreting only as a source language
FI: C-kieli
SV: C-sprk
DE: C-Sprache
FR: langue C

calque, loan translation
Definition: translation technique whereby a source-language morphological or syntactic structure is transferred unchanged into the target language. E.g. bermensch > Superman; in the long run > pitkss juoksussa
FI: knnslaina
SV: versttningsln, kalkering
DE: Lehnbersetzung
FR: calque

CAT > computer-assisted translation

category shift
Definition: change from a source-language category to a different category in the target language, e.g. a change of word class, syntactic structure, system or unit
Source: Catford 1965
FI: kategorian vaihdos, kategorianvaihto
SV: kategoribyte
DE: Kategorienwechsel
FR: changement de catgorie

chuchotage > whispered interpreting

class shift
Definition: change of grammatical class, e.g. from source-language noun to target-language verb
Source: Catford 1965
FI: luokanvaihdos, luokan vaihto
SV: klassbyte
DE: Satzgliedwechsel
FR: transposition

clause structure change
Definition: syntactic translation technique or strategy; a change that has to do with the structure of the clause in terms of its constituent phrases. Various subclasses include constituent order (e.g. analysed as Subject, Verb, Object, Complement, Adverbial), active vs. passive voice, finite vs. non-finite structure, transitive vs. intransitive.
FI: lauserakennemuutos, muutos lauserakenteessa
SV: syntaxbyte, syntaxisk frndring, frndrad satsstruktur
DE: Satzbauwechsel
FR: changement syntaxique

client, commissioner, initiator, requester
Definition: the person(s) who orders the translation from the translator
FI: toimeksiantaja
SV: uppdragsgivare, uppdragsgivare, klient
DE: Auftraggeber
FR: donneur dordres, donneur douvrage, commanditaire

close translation
Definition: any kind of translation that tends to preserve the formal structure of the source text, preferring e.g. formal correspondence to target-language naturalness
FI: sanatarkka knns
SV: ordagrann versttning
DE: wortgetreue bersetzung
FR: traduction sourcire

Definition 1: generally, the quality of making sense; being logical.
Definition 2: in skopos theory: (i) a translation has intratextual coherence if it makes sense in the situation where it is read; (ii) a translation has intertextual coherence if it makes sense with respect to its source text.
Source: Reiss and Vermeer 1984
FI: koherenssi
SV: koherens
DE: Kohrenz
FR: cohrence

coherence change
Definition: pragmatic translation technique or strategy having to do with the logical arrangement of information in the text, at the ideational level; e.g. in paragraphing
FI: koherenssimuutos, koherenssin muutos
SV: koherensbyte, frndrad koherens
DE: Kohrenzwechsel
FR: changement de cohrence

cohesion change
Definition: syntactic translation technique or strategy; a change that affects intra-textual reference, ellipsis, substitution, pronominalization and repetition, or the use of connectors
FI: koheesiomuutos, koheesion muutos
SV: kohesionbyte, frndrad kohesion
DE: Kohsionswechsel
FR: changement de cohsion

Definition: term or concept that shares a common hypernym with another term or concept
FI: rinnakkaisksite, kohyponyymi
SV: kohyponym
DE: Syn-Hyponym
FR: co-hyponyme

Definition: word created to satisfy an ad hoc need to express a concept or to produce a stylistic effect for which the target language lacks existing resources
FI: uudissana
SV: nybildning
DE: ad hoc -Wortbildung
FR: mot forg

commission, brief
Definition: intructions or specification given by the client to the translator, perhaps further negotiated in cooperation with the translator
FI: toimeksianto, asiakkaan ohjeet
SV: uppdrag
DE: bersetzungsauftrag
FR: instructions, cahier des charges, consigne de traduction

commissioner > client

communication load > information load

communicative translation
Definition: any translation that tends to prioritize intelligibility and communicability, focusing on the reader; sometimes opposed to semantic translation
Source: Newmark 1981
SV: kommunikativ versttning
FI: kommunikatiivinen knns
DE: kommunikative bersetzung
FR: traduction communicative

community interpreting
Definition: public service interpreting for local community needs, typically with immigrants, usually in both language directions
FI: asioimistulkkaus
SV: kontakttolkning
DE: Kommunaldolmetschen, Verhandlungsdolmetschen
FR: interprtation communautaire, interprtation de liaison

Definition: simple research technique to discover what translators take to be equivalents: you change items in the source text, and then see how translators change the target text; a way to discover what corresponds to what
Source: Catford 1965
FI: kommutaatio
SV: kommutation
DE: Substitution
FR: commutation

comparable corpus
Definition: corpus consisting of translations in a given target language plus parallel texts, i.e. non-translated original texts of the same kind, in the same language; used to study distinguishing features of translations
Source: Baker 1995
Note: not to be confused with a parallel corpus, which consists of source texts plus their translations in a given language or languages.
FI: verrannollinen korpus
SV: jmfrelsekorpus
DE: vergleichbares Korpus
FR: corpus comparable

componential analysis
Definition: form of semantic analysis in which words are represented as basic components (elements) of meaning. E.g. the components [+ human] and [ adult] represent the meaning of CHILD.
FI: komponenttianalyysi
SV: komponentanalys
DE: Komponentenanalyse
FR: analyse componentielle

compression, concentration, concision, condensation
Definition: technique of expressing the same meaning in a reduced form, so that the target version is shorter
FI: tiivistminen
SV: komprimering
DE: Konzentration, Krzung
FR: compression, concision, concentration

computer-assisted translation, CAT, machine-aided translation
Definition: translation method whereby the translator make use of computer tools such as a translation memory
FI: tietokoneavusteinen kntminen
SV: datorstdd versttning
DE: maschinengesttzte bersetzung
FR: traduction assiste par ordinateur

conference interpreting
Definition: professional interpreting as done at international conferences, usually simultaneously, with booths and ear-phones
FI: konferenssitulkkaus
SV: konferenstolkning
DE: Konferenzdolmetschen
FR: interprtation de confrence

consecutive interpreting
Definition: form of interpreting where the interpreter listens to a section of speech and (usually) takes notes, then translates it
FI: konsekutiivitulkkaus, perkkistulkkaus
SV: konsekutivtolkning
DE: Konsekutivdolmetschen
FR: interprtation conscutive

constitutive translational convention
Definition: conventions (or norms) that determine what a particular culture accepts as a translation, conventions that thus constitute the concept of translation for that culture
Source: Nord 1991b
SV: versttningskonvention, konstitutiv versttningskonvention
FI: konstitutiiviset knnskonventiot
DE: konstitutive bersetzungskonvention
FR: convention traductionnelle

Definition: factor that limits a translators freedom of choice
FI: rajoite
SV: restriktion
DE: Vorgabe
FR: contrainte

contextual consistency
Definition: policy of translating a given word by using different target-language words depending on the context (as opposed verbal consistency, where the translator always uses the same translation)
FI: kontekstivastaavuus, kontekstuaalinen koherenssi
SV: kontextmotsvarighet, kontextuell verensstmmelse
DE: kontextuelle Konsistenz
FR: cohrence contextuelle

contrastive linguistics
Definition: branch of applied linguistics that compares languages, e.g. in order to improve methods of language teaching, or to discover language universals
FI: kontrastiivinen kielitiede, vertaileva kielitiede
SV: kontrastiv sprkvetenskap
DE: kontrastive Linguistik
FR: linguistique contrastive

controlled language, restricted language, sublanguage
Definition: restricted form of language used in a well-defined domain, where machine translation works well
FI: rajoitettu kieli, minikieli, alikieli
SV: minilekt, kontrollerat sprk, begrnsat sprk, subsprk
DE: regulierte Sprache, kontrollierte Sprache
FR: langue controlle, sous-langue

Definition: customary form of belief, attitude or behaviour in a given culture or society; less strict than a norm
FI: konventio
SV: konvention
DE: Konvention
FR: convention

Definition: semantic translation technique or strategy in which the translation uses an alternative (usually) verbal structure which expresses the same state of affairs from an opposing viewpoint, such as changing A bought X from B to B sold X to A. The term can also mean the name of this relation between the two verbs.
FI: konversio, nkkulman vaihto
SV: motsats, motsatspar
DE: Entgegensetzung
FR: contraire

court interpreting
Definition: kind of interpreting done in a court of law
FI: oikeustulkkaus
SV: rttstolkning
DE: Gerichtsdolmetschen
FR: interprtation auprs des tribunaux

covert translation
Definition: translation that aims to present itself as an original, concealing its nature as a translation
Source: House 1977
FI: piiloknns
SV: dold versttning
DE: funktionskonstante bersetzung
FR: traduction dguise, traduction cache

cultural borrowing
Definition: a type of cultural transposition in which a source-language expression is transferred verbatim into the target language because it is not possible to translate it by a suitable target-language equivalent
Source: Hervey and Higgins 1992
FI: kulttuurilainaus, kulttuurilaina
SV: kulturln
DE: kulturelle Leihung
FR: emprunt culturel, report culturel

cultural filtering > domestication

cultural references > realia

cultural substitution
Definition: the use of a real-world referent from the receptor culture to translate an unknown referent of the original, both of the referents having the same function
Source: Beekman and Callow 1974
FI: kulttuurinen substituutio
SV: kulturell substitution
DE: kulturelle Substitution
FR: substitution culturelle

cultural transplantation
Definition: highest degree of cultural transfer, in which details of the source culture contained in the source text are replaced by target-culture elements with the result that the text is partially rewritten in a target-culture setting
Source: Hervey and Higgins 1992
FI: kulttuurinen transplantaatio
SV: kulturell transplantation
DE: kulturelle Transplantation
FR: transplantation culturelle

culture-bound terms > realia

culture bump
Definition: situation where a target-culture reader has problems understanding a source-cultural allusion; more generally, problem of intercultural communication
Source: Leppihalme 1994
FI: kulttuurityssy
SV: kulturkrock
DE: kultureller Zusammensto
FR: hiatus culturel

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