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MonAKO Glossary A-B

Alkuun A-B C D E-F G-H I J-L M N-P Q-R S T U-W


A-language
Definition: the interpreter’s native language, into which he/she works from all his/her other languages in both kinds of interpretation, simultaneous and consecutive
FI: A-kieli
SV: A-språk
DE: A-Sprache
FR: langue A

absolute translation
Definition: translation that preserves the communicative quality of the original, mistakes and all
Source: Gouadec 1989
FI: absoluuttinen käännös
SV: absolut översättning
DE: absolute Übersetzung
FR: traduction absolue

abstraction change
Definition: semantic translation technique or strategy, involving a move either from abstract to more concrete or from concrete to more abstract
Source: Chesterman 1997
FI: abstraktiotason muutos, abstraktiotason vaihto
SV: abstraktionsbyte, förändrad abstraktionsnivå
DE: Abstraktionswechsel
FR: changement d’abstraction

abstract translation > summary translation

acceptability
Definition: characteristic of translations that have a natural target-language style, because they conform closely to target-language norms; degree to which a translation conforms to target-language norms
Source: Toury 1995
FI: hyväksyttävyys
SV: acceptabilitet, acceptans
DE: Akzeptabilität, Annehmbarkeit
FR: acceptabilité linguistique, acceptabilité

accuracy
Definition: characteristic of translations that give high priority to preserving the informational content of the source text
FI: tarkkuus
SV: exakthet
DE: Genauigkeit
FR: fidélité informationnelle

adaptation
Definition 1: translation technique or strategy based on situational equivalence
Source: Vinay and Darbelnet 1958
Definition 2: any kind of translation which does not prioritize formal equivalence; a very free translation
FI: adaptaatio, mukaelma
SV: adaptation
DE: Adaptation, Adaption
FR: adaptation

addition
Definition: translation technique or strategy involving the adding of information not present explicitly or implicitly in the source text
FI: lisäys, lisääminen
SV: tillägg
DE: Ergänzung, Hinzufügung
FR: ajout

addressee, target audience
Definition: person(s) to whom the translation is directed, the intended reader(s)
Source: Delisle 1999
FI: vastaanottaja
SV: mottagare
DE: Adressat
FR: destinataire

adequacy
Definition 1: quality of a translation with respect to its skopos; the degree to which it meets its intended function Source: Reiss and Vermeer 1984
Definition 2: characteristic of a translation which conforms to source rather than target norms
Source: Toury 1995
Note: The two senses are very different indeed!.
FI: adekvaattisuus
SV: adekvathet, adekvans
DE: (1) Adäquatheit, (2) Adäquatheit in Bezug auf die Ausgangssprache
FR: (1) adéquation au skopos, (2) adéquation sourcière

ad hoc formulation
Definition: result of a translation operation that establishes a lexical, syntactic, or even phrasal equivalence that is only appropriate within the text in question
Source: Delisle 1999
FI: ad hoc -muotoilu
SV: ad hoc -formulering
DE: Ad hoc -Wiedergabe
FR: formulation ad hoc

adjustment
Definition: set of techniques used in Bible translation which are designed to
“produce correct equivalents” in the target language and thus help a translation achieve dynamic equivalence
Source: Nida 1964
Note: Nida later replaced the notion of adjustment by “transfer” and “restructuring”.
FI: sopeuttaminen
SV: anpassning
DE: Anpassung
FR: ajustement

agent
Definition: any person involved in communication via translation, apart from the translator: e.g. text producer, editor, reviser, publisher, client, recipient
Source: Sager 1994
FI: osapuoli, toimija
SV: deltagare, aktör
DE: Beteiligter
FR: acteur

amplification, expansion
Definition: translation technique in which the the “same” meaning as in the original is expressed in a longer form in the translation
Source: Delisle 1999
FI: laajentaminen, laajennus, laajennos
SV: utvidgning, expansion, amplifiering
DE: Zieltextausweitung, Erweiterung, Amplifikation
FR: foisonnement, étoffement

analysis
Definition: process of source-text analysis, before and/or during the translation process
Source: Nida and Taber 1969/1982, Nord 1991a
FI: tekstianalyysi, analyysi
SV: analysskede
DE: Textanalyse
FR: analyse

anticipation
Definition: phenomenon in simultaneous interpretation in
which the interpreter says something that the speaker will say only later
FI: ennakointi
SV:anticipation
DE: Antizipation
FR: anticipation

antonymy
Definition: semantic translation technique of selecting an antonym plus a negation element (e.g. “good” > “not bad”); the relation between a concept and its opposite
FI: antonymia
SV: antonymi
DE: Antonymie
FR: antonymie

applied translation studies
Definition: branch of translation studies that includes translator training, translation aids, translation policy, translation criticism
Source: Holmes 1988
FI: soveltava käännöstiede
SV: tillämpad översättningsvetenskap, tillämpad översättningsforskning
DE: angewandte Übersetzungswissenschaft
FR: branche appliquée de la traductologie

archaism
Definition: translation technique or strategy involving the deliberate use of archaic forms in the target language; a form that is the result of such a technique
FI: arkaismi
SV: arkaism
DE: Archaismus
FR: traduction archaïsante, archaïsme

architranseme
Definition: methodological tool for the analysis of translation equivalence: a theoretical common denominator used in the comparison of source text and translation
Source: Leuven-Zwart 1989/1990
FI: arkkitranseemi
SV: arketransem
DE: Architranseme
FR: architransème

attention unit
Definition: an item at which a translator appears to pause (in a think-aloud protocol); an apparent indication of some kind of special mental processing, e.g. to solve a specific non-routine problem
FI: huomiointiyksikkö
SV: uppmärksamhetsenhet
DE: Aufmerksamkeitseinheit
FR: unité d’attention

audiovisual translation > screen translation

autonomy spectrum
Definition: continuum used to classify basic translation types, the two poles being source text autonomy and target audience needs
Source: Rose 1981
FI: autonomiakirjo
SV: autonomispektrum
DE: Autonomiespektrum
FR: spectre d’autonomie

autotranslation, self-translation
Definition: translation done by the author of the source text
Source: Popovic 1976
FI: (kirjailijan) oma käännös
SV: egenöversättning, egen översättning
DE: Selbstübersetzung
FR: autotraduction, traduction de l’auteur

B-language
Definition: an interpreter’s active foreign language, mastered to a near-native level, used as a target language as well as a source language
FI: B-kieli
SV: B-språk
DE: B-Sprache
FR: langue B

Babel, Tower of
Definition: biblical myth, offering an explanation for the variety of languages in the world and thus the need for translators and interpreters. See Genesis Chapter 11
FI: Baabelin torni
SV: Babels torn
DE: Turm von Babel
FR: Tour de Babel

back transformation
Definition: process of simplifying or paraphrasing a complex source-language structure into a kind of deep structure version, in order to make it easier to understand and translate; part of the analysis stage of translation
Source: Nida 1969
FI: takaisintransformointi
SV: tillbakatransformering
DE: Rücktransformation
FR: rétro-transformation

back-translation
Definition: reverse translation process where a translation is retranslated back into the source language (e.g to check the adequacy of the translation)
FI: takaisinkäännös
SV: tillbakaöversättning
DE: Rückübersetzung
FR: traduction-retour, traduction en arrière, rétrotraduction

belles infidèles
Definition: very free translations or adaptations done in France during the 17th and 18th centuries; literally ‘beautiful unfaithful’
FI: belles infidèles, “uskottomat kaunottaret”
SV: otrogna skönheter
DE: Belles infidèles
FR: belles infidèles

bi-text
Definition 1: psychological concept denoting a source-language item together with its target-language equivalent, as they co-exist for a moment in the head of the translator
Source: Harris 1988
Definition 2: a merged electronic document consisting of a translation plus its source text
FI: biteksti
SV: bitext
DE: Bitext
FR: bi-texte

borrowing > loan

brief > commission

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