Yliopiston etusivulle In English
Helsingin yliopisto
clt361: Grammar Engineering - lukuvuosi 2009-2010

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Heads, Complements and Specifiers

  • Make a new subdirectory lkb-cfg-3 for this exercise. Copy all the files from ~gwilcock/delphin/lkb/src/data/itfs/g5lex into it.
  • Start LKB, use Load->Complete grammar, and select the script file from your lkb-cfg-3 directory to load the grammar. Parse these dogs sleep.

Lexical entries

  • View the lexical entries in lexicon.tdl. Words have an ORTH feature giving the orthography as in the g1cfg grammar, but instead of a CATEG feature, words now have a HEAD feature giving a part-of-speech (det, noun or verb).
  • Words also have a SPR (specifier) feature and a COMPS (complements) feature. Most of them are < >. Both SPR and COMPS are lists. Their type is *list*.

A short notation for lists

  • An alternative way of writing lists in the TDL language is with angle brackets.
    An empty list can be written < >, which is exactly equivalent to *null*.
    A non-empty list < aaa > is short for [ FIRST aaa, REST *null* ], and
    < aaa, bbb > is short for [ FIRST aaa, REST [ FIRST bbb, REST *null* ]].

The Head Feature Principle

  • The Head Feature Principle (HFP) says that the HEAD feature of a phrase's mother must be the same as the HEAD feature of its head daughter.
  • View the grammar rules in rules.tdl. How is the Head Feature Principle implemented in all of the grammar rules in this grammar?

The Head-Complement Rule

  • The Head-Complement Rule says that the complements in the COMPS list of a phrase's head daughter must exactly match the other following daughters. The items in the list are all "crossed off" and the mother's COMPS list is empty.
  • View the grammar rules in rules.tdl. How is the Head-Complement Rule implemented in the grammar rules for one, two and three daughters?

The Head-Specifier Rule

  • The Head-Specifier Rule says that if there is a specifier in the SPR list of a phrase's head daughter, it must exactly match the preceding daughter. In that case, the item in the list is "crossed off" and the mother's SPR list is empty.
  • How is the Head-Specifier Rule implemented in the rules in rules.tdl?

Adding a ditransitive verb

  • The lexicon includes the intransitive verb sleep and the transitive verb chased. Extend the lexicon by adding the ditransitive verb gave. You do not need to change the grammar rules.
  • Test the extended grammar with these dogs sleep, these dogs chased the cat, and these dogs gave the cat this aardvark.

Adding agreement

  • This grammar does not handle agreement. How can you extend it to require agreement between subject and verb and between determiner and noun?
© 2006-2010 Graham Wilcock

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